Project Problem Details
The long term vision of the Government of Nepal (GoN) as reflected in the 20 year Perspective Plan of the water supply and sanitation sector is to provide safe drinking water and sanitation facilities to the people of Nepal. The provision of safe drinking water supply and sanitation facilities as a social right of the people of Nepal has become a declared commitment of the government of Nepal . The WASH is accorded a priority area under the 14th National Development Plan (2016-2019). The overall WASH sector objectives of the government are to improve the health and productivity of the people by making available potable water and sanitation facilities and health hygiene benefits to the entire population. Access to basic water supply is about 87% throughout the country while Nepal has declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) country recently in 2019. This was possible due to collective efforts of all – Government, Civil Society, Development Partners, Community and other segments of the Nepali society.
The real scenario may be worse than indicated above, for surveys conducted by the National Management Information Project (NMIP) show that more than 50% of existing water supply systems are in need of repairs or rehabilitation. The functionality and sustainability situation of such WSS systems is due to a number of reasons, including: (i) community capacity constraints to raise revenue for O&M; (ii) water source issues; and (iii) Water Supply and Sanitation User Groups’ (WSUGs) inability to undertake major repairs.(iv) lack of backup services for the sustainability of the schemes, and (v) nonexistence of institutional mechanism to monitor and support the sustainability aspect of the schemes have been identified as contributing factors to the lower level of sustainability and functionality of the schemes. It is noted here that no one survey disaggregates the data considering slum dwellers and squatters in Nepal.
The disparity in existing WSS systems is realised. The relevant inequalities in WASH include: spatial/regional inequalities (e.g. those experienced by communities in remote and inaccessible rural areas and slum-dwellers in urban and peri-urban areas); economic inequalities (e.g. those based on all poor, ethnicity, nationality, language, religion and caste); political inequalities (e.g. those based on practices of power (some caste holds excessive power and lacks authority- participation in governance system) and social inequalities (e.g. those based on women and children particularly girls, age, disability, health conditions, and menstrual hygiene management).
Bateshwar is a Rural Municipality in Dhanusha District (plain region) in Province No. 2 of Nepal. It was formed in 2016 occupying current 5 sections (wards) from previous 5 VDCs. It occupies an area of 31.66 sq. km with a total population of 21,530 including more than half of its population are from Dalit (untouchable) and Janajati categories deprived sections of people. The water supply and sanitation situations of around 12166 population including 935 households of Dalit and 1157 households from Janajati are critical and acute. Mostly, the women and children fetch water daily from 45 to one hour distance for family members, animals and environment. Sometimes, they are badly abused by the water source or Dug Well owners. It is to be noted here that the Dug Well WSS system is found to be more feasible in the communities of Bateshwar and nearby communities.
Both physical and economic water scarcity make water stress to the deprived sections of people since it results with water borne diseases that make their lives more complex. Hence, potable water supply and sanitation is dire needs of people in Bateshwar community.
Project Solution Details
The policies should be designed and made mandatory during implementation such that access to assets and services (i.e., health, education, and employment opportunities), which almost all of our interventions seek to increase, increase in voice and influences and institutional structure and norms should be improved. The identified WASH projects have given high priority and addressed social and economic inequalities. Strengthening the value of political commitments towards poor people, ensuring collective action results in benefits for poor people, helping poor people become valued customers and helping develop stronger institutions to protect poor peoples’ interests are key relationships addressed by the project. It made easier to address the existing problems of water supply and sanitation facilities of vulnerable people of Bateshwar community (poor, women, Dalit and Janajati).
The target group of the proposed project will be the followings:
Chronically poor often die prematurely;
Have a very low income;
Face multiple deprivations including, hunger, under-nutrition, and illiteracy, and unsafe drinking water, lack of access to basic health services, social discrimination, physical insecurity and political exclusion.
The total direct beneficiaries from the proposed project will be 2766 households with 12,166 populations including 6,712 women. The students and teachers of two schools with 940 students will also be benefitted by the project. Other people of nearby three communities and travelers will also be benefitted indirectly from access to potable water. The indirect beneficiaries have estimated to be more than 17% of the direct beneficiaries
The PRDAPS will establish an organization structure defining clear line of command and responsibilities of each professional. The line of communication will be strictly followed as indicated in the Fig. 1. The Project Coordinator will be principal person to remain in continues interface with the Client. He will be supported by the Executive Director and Technical and administrative Experts, assigned from PRDAPS’s Head Office. Thus, main responsibility of the Consultancy Services to be provided will lie with the Project Coordinator or Executive Director (ED) and the Technical and administrative Experts. They will be mobilizing all the resources available with the Organization so that the study in carried out smoothly. Back-up support from the Head Office will be made to the Project’s team during the whole period of services for carrying out their duties to a successful completion of the Assignment. The Consultant will, organize an advisory and head office support unit and all the technical matters and special problems relating to the project will be assessed and solved by it as and when required.
Staffing of Project Implementation
There will be three regular staffs recruited to implement proposed project comprising of Project Coordinator (WSS Engineer) for 18 months, one Social Mobiliser for 18 months and one part time Admin/Account Officer for 6 months. These staffs will be supported by ED and technical experts of PRDAPS as outlined above.
Duration of Project
It is expected that the project will take 18 months period to complete from the date of agreement with the client.
Community Contribution and Operation and Maintenance (O & M) Fund
As per the decision made by the mass meeting comprising of the representatives of Bateshwar Rural Municipality and PRDAPS and community leaders and people held on November 15, 2019, the community will contribute NRs.: 10,000 per Dug Well and will be deposited in a separate bank account in the nearby Bank for O & M fund. Mostly, this fund will be used for maintenance of the Dug Well. The mass meeting also decided that this fund will also be used as revolving fund for implementing income generating activities for women’s saved time from water fetching. The Bateshwar Rural Municipality in the mass meeting verbally committed to deposit 5% of total cost for O & M fund of the project.
Result Output Details
The proposed project has envisaged a number of positive results and outputs as outlined below:
1.Institutional Development and Ownership Feeling: Empowering the community through the information and development of community institution in terms of awareness raising, formation of community plan, implementation, monitoring, evaluation, operation and maintenance as well as overall management of the project on their own increase people’s confidence for tackling problems and ownership feeling of the project.
2.Social Capital Development: This project will give due emphasis to the capacity building of communities under human resource development. Community people are trained in different subject matters in order to undertake defined responsibilities that could help support in accessing safe drinking water and sanitation to rural people as well as in promoting social capital development.
3.Health and Hygiene: The project will have impressive impact on health and hygiene of the beneficiary households, resulting decrease/elimination of water borne diseases.
4.Productive Use of Time Saved from Water Fetching: Significantly saved women from drudgery in fetching water by saving approximately 3.2 hours per day throughout the year. It is estimated that the income of women will be increased by 24% and employment by 30% and support in poverty reduction.
5.Social Inclusion and Mainstreaming Poor: Inclusion of social mapping focusing on ethnic information, mandatory inclusion of deprived groups’ including poor, IP, Dalits and disadvantaged people increase their participation in project.
6.Community Procurement and Financial Transparency: The culture of transparency and accountability has been instrumental in the effectiveness of project. Procurement of construction materials will be done by community people. Public auditing will be exercised during operation and after completion of the project in front of the community at mass meetings. Financial audit is also done in order to ensure better financial management and transparency. Information related to funding sources including contributions and expenditure are displayed on a display board in each scheme.
7.Cost Effectiveness: Community involvement in technical/service level choice and linking it with cost sharing lowers the overall cost of the schemes resulting lower per capita cost.
8.Sustainability of Project: The sustainability of a WSS project can be assessed uing four major indicators like institutional, technical, social/environmental, and financial dimensions with a number of sub-indicators. It can be expected that the project will be undoubtly sustainable since institutional, technical and social/environmental capacity of the community will be enhanced by PRDAPS. The community will exercise book of accounts, social audit and financial audit.